Over the period of years, there have been a lot of advancements in criminal investigation and forensic science, there are now many investigative methods used in carrying out Crime Scene Investigation. It is through these methods that leads can be generated in criminal cases and suspects can be called for interrogation. All these aspects offer a whole new perspective in carrying out criminal investigation. DNA is a physical characteristic that is unique to each and every human being. Through developments in forensic science and technology, DNA samples can now be processed and used for solving cases.
Anything biological related to human beings comes under DNA evidence in Crime Scene Investigation. The most commonly used DNA samples collected from crime scenes includes blood traces, hair fibers, saliva and other body secretions. Fingernails, urine and sweat also act as significant DNA samples. In terms of the DNA analysis of a dead body in a murder case, tissue samples as well as bones and organs are important. When a crime occurs, there are DNA samples all over the crime scene and it is the job of the CSI Criminal Investigation team to secure the scene and retrieve all the DNA samples for processing.
In case of death cases, the DNA at the crime scene is of the victim and most of the times others present at the spot. Among these could be the murderer hidden that would only get to be identified after a DNA analysis. Only crimes committed with extreme caution are those devoid of any DNA samples. When collecting DNA evidence from a crime scene, the Crime Scene Technician and investigators need to take precaution so that they don’t contaminate the evidence in any way. To avoid the contamination, wearing Personal Protective Equipment is vital. If there is multiple DNA evidence present at a crime scene, it is important for the Crime Scene Technician to collect each sample by changing the gloves and forceps for every sample. This eliminates the danger of cross contamination of the samples.
In terms of DNA collection, there are specialized techniques used. This involves collection as well as taking photos, which is the job of the Crime Scene Photographer. For collecting blood samples from the scene, the techniques used are scrapping or swabbing a surface. Alternatively, an item with bloodstains on it can also be collected and taken in for processing. After scrapping and swabbing, the stain is moved on a piece of paper with the help of a scalpel. The paper should be clean. An evidence envelope is usually used for this purpose. The collector should take care to swipe clean the scalpel every time a sample is collected to avoid contaminating the evidence. During collection, each item should be labeled properly so that it can be identified later on.
DNA technology is highly advanced and can be used in murder and death cases. In terms of CSI Crime Scene Investigation, there are different ways DNA contributes to solving the case. First and foremost, DNA technology is very important in terms of identification of the body. This tends to be very helpful in cases in which there is no identification found on the dead body. If an unidentified body is found in a place, the DNA from it can be processed and then compared to the DNA records in the database to find any matches for finding those close to kin. Through DNA analysis and processing a dead body, the time of death can be estimated exactly.
It is not just the murder and death cases that can be solved with the help of DNA technology. In cases related to sexual offense, DNA analysis can prove if or not a person was raped. Not only this, but the semen can also be analyzed and matched to that of the perpetrator. Through DNA analysis, the investigators can also narrow a range of suspects down. It is with DNA technology that there is more focus in crime solving and there is more accuracy and precision when suspects are being processed and psychological profiling of the criminal is done.
In order to reap all the potential benefits of DNA technology, it is imperative that the DNA evidence should be protected from any contamination. Some of the most common contaminants at crime scenes that can destroy DNA evidence include grease and dirt and in some case fabric dyes as well. It is not just during the documentation of evidence that there is the possibility of DNA evidence being destroyed. The criminals who take utmost care in covering their tracks destroy mostly destroy any DNA evidence they may have left behind through different methods.
Over the period of years, DNA analysis and processing methods have come a long way. This has brought immense advancements into the way crimes are investigated. No matter what the nature of the crime, DNA evidence is one clue that surely brings a lot of clues into the investigation. It is the DNA module that is at the heart of the DNA technology and allows for high levels of identification techniques through DNA samples.
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